Technical conditions for the manufacturing of vinyl records for Kuroneko Phonogram Manufacturing sp zoo.
Vinyl records are mechanically manufactured analogue mediums of sound storage. The sound and dimensional parameters are according to the 3rd edition of the standard IEC 98, published in 1987.
1. Types of manufactured vinyl
Vinyl records are classified into the following categories, according to the combination of playback speed and diameter:
In addition to the above mentioned products, there are also different types of records which differ in weight (standard and "heavy"), colored, designer labels (picture disc). These records may not conform to the standard specifications published in IEC 98.
1.1 Recording times and choice of vinyl records
Each side of a record carries a physically continuous spiral groove with 2 channels (stereo). The groove begins at the edge of the record and ends within a specified diameter from the centre, where the groove closes within itself. Any request involving a different geometrical groove order needs to be specifically defined as a planned deviation from the IEC 98 norm.
The recording time available on vinyl records depends on the frequency spectrum, dynamics, width of the stereo image and other characteristics of the recording.
The playback times mentioned here are for orientation only. If the playing time per side does not exceed the timings mentioned, the cutting level is usually only limited according to the parameters of the cutting machine and playback conditions. If the playing time is longer than the recommended times in the table, it is possible that the signal requested to be cut could exceed the recording area. In this case, it is necessary to lower the cutting level or to choose a suitable compromise.
For a clearer orientation between the track markings, it is possible to cut a transmission groove, keeping in mind that this transmission groove decreases the recordable area of the medium.
When selecting the desired vinyl format, it is important to not only take the playback time into consideration, but also the physical principles of playback as well. Based on this, the worst suitable format would be a 7“ EP cut at 33 1/3 RPM (which we don’t recommend, because this particular format has the lowest circumference speed during playback in the centre area of the record).
1.2 Geometric parameters of vinyl records
The measurements of vinyl records are based on the IEC 98 norm. Vinyl record dimensions of 12“, 10“ and 7“ are valid for standard weight vinyl in the diagrams below.
Other parameters not included in these figures are:
1. Flatness of phonographic records:
Records may not show an extreme warping. The warping may not influence a continuous replaying on a record player. The maximum of flatness accepted is 0,5mm.
For nonstandard records where there is used only one label or for Picture Disc Shaped records, where the label is printed from both sides, warping will always be present. Warping can´t prevent continuous play of the record.
2. Eccentricity of the spiral groove cannot be more than 0,2mm
The dimensions and flatness parameters for the records mentioned above are not valid for heavyweight vinyl, picture discs or shaped vinyl. Further specifications can be found in the information concerning the specific format.
1.3 Heavyweight vinyl
Records with a diameter of 7” and 12” are manufactured in 2 different weight classes: “standard” and “heavy“. Records with a diameter of 10” are manufactured in a standard weight only.
All types of records and weights are within a tolerance of ± 10g, apart from 7“ standard weight, which has a tolerance of ± 7g.
The weights mentioned above are not valid for picture discs and shaped vinyl. Weights for these types of special records are determined according to the technological parameter settings.
1.4 Coloured vinyl
Vinyl records are manufactured in standard black as well as single or multicolour configurations, according to the customers’ wishes.
1.4.1 Single coloured vinyl
The manufacturing of single coloured records is carried out according to the colour swatch from the manufacturer.
All coloured vinyl which is manufactured with an opaque (solid) coloured (including metallic inks) base contains a mineral pigment or metal powder which can impair the acoustic properties of the record (causing a possible light crackling surface noise). These defects cannot be subject to claim. Likewise, the inferior acoustic properties (light crackling) on Ultra Clear coloured vinyl can also not be subject to claim.
We evaluate the entire area of the vinyl as a reference (including labels) when investigating claims against coloured records. The coverage of spots/stains are calculated as a whole and may not exceed the values mentioned above.
There are specific metallic single coloured records gold, bronze and silver. The pigment composition causes uneven spillage of a colour, especially in the area without recording, resulting in coloured “waves” on a vinyl record – a relief with a different colour shade. This effect doesn’t influence the recording/sound quality (lead-in groove, lead-out groove, mirror). These characteristics cannot be subject to claim.
1.4.2 Multicoloured vinyl
Manufacturing of multi-coloured records is carried out by mixing the individual coloured raw material prior to the pressing of the records. The appearance of each individual record will be different and can deviate from the desired end effect. Two-colour combinations of black with transparent colours will not yield a good result, due to the loss of colour effects. Transparent colours mixed with black, for example, will be completely absorbed and not visible whatsoever.
Claims against multicolour combinations are investigated according to similar conditions as with single coloured records in respect to deviations from the colour swatches, noise and crackles on opaque coloured records with metallic pigments and Ultra Clear vinyl.
Claims against deviation from the desired colour design chart, such as an uneven colour representation on splatter vinyl or differing representations of colours for multicolour combinations of two different records produced in the same pressing run cannot be accepted.
In case the customer is requesting the same effect as was used for the original production for example, physical sample is mandatory, which will be used as a standard for the pressing. If the physical sample is not provided, the pressing will be done according to the processing standard and differences in the effect from the request of the customer cannot be the subject of any claim.
184.108.40.206 Splatter vinyl
When using more splatter colours it cannot be guaranteed that all of them will be visible. Black colour and dark solid colour used as a base colour absorb splatter colours. The result is splatters are less visible. Furthermore when using solid colours as a base colour combined with transparent splatter colours the final effect may be less visible. We recommend using of transparent colours as a base to achieve a higher contrast. The amount of splatters cannot be defined. Splatters cannot be used on 7” heavy vinyl records.
For some records, there can be a taints on the label in overall acceptable area of and if they do not prevent the readiability of the text, they are acceptable and cannot be subject of a claim process.
220.127.116.11 Colour in colour vinyl
The record is pressed as a small vinyl biscuit into a large vinyl biscuit. When using a small solid vinyl biscuit and a large transparent vinyl biscuit the colours will be bounded. We recommend to use contrast colours, preferably a large vinyl biscuit of a light transparent colour and a small vinyl biscuit of a solid dark colour. It cannot be used reversely. In case both of the vinyl biscuits are solid the final effect is random, colours are penetrated and the final effect is rather A side / B side effect.
18.104.22.168 Marble effect
This is an effect with a marbling on a vinyl record. The base colour must be light transparent, the marbling colour must be dark solid colour, preferably black.
1.5 Test pressings
Test pressings (5-10 copies) can be manufactured upon request. Test pressings are pressed on basic black vinyl. The difference between test pressings and the full production (including picture discs) is that test pressings come with white center labels containing just sides’ marking. Test pressings are sent to the customer for approval and are for checking and approving the acoustic quality of the record only (as well as any requested engravings). Claims against other defects will not be accepted. The approved sample is used as a standard for assessing the acoustic quality of the complete production.
2 Material required for mastering
Limitation of Liability for damages: In the case the physical data medium is damaged or lost, TAKT Sp zoo will cover the price value of the new medium, but not the content.
The physical media must be readable throughout the length of the program. In the event that the supplied medium contains uncorrectable read errors, processing of the order(s) will be suspended and the customer will be requested to supply new data.
The documentation must concisely and clearly identify the supplied material to verify the accuracy of the data during the preliminary input check and subsequent processing. In particular, all non-standard elements and abnormalities (such as defects or non-musical sounds) should be clearly noted.
Processing of orders (titles) without the required documentation is suspended until the customer supplies the source data and documentation in accordance with the technical conditions. If the customer insists on the production without the required documentation, the customer will do so at their own risk and will be responsible for any associated errors, especially concerning changes in track listings or songs.
Supplied documentation must contain the following information:
2.1.1 Identification information
Catalogue number, customer name, song titles, artist, etc.
2.2.2 Information regarding supplied data
Type of supplied data
Location on FTP server: directory and file name
Data format (CD Audio master, DDP, ISO image, individual files)
2.2.3 Description of the final product
22.214.171.124 Required format
Size of record and speed; or speed of each side (if they are different).
126.96.36.199 Sides’ division
The individual track names, the lengths of the tracks and order that the tracks should be in as well as the total playing time of both sides. We recommend specifying the lengths of the pauses between tracks.
188.8.131.52 Special requirements
Any non-standard or special requests must be clearly specified and agreed upon in advance (closed grooves, endless loops, etc.)
3 Completion of the product
The product is delivered in internal and external packaging (depending on the customer’s requirements) and stored in sturdy cardboard boxes. The choice of packaging is specified in the customer order.
Testing and measuring methods are carried out in accordance to the CSN IEC 98 norm, which is based on IEC 98 1987.
It is recommended to test the acoustic quality on equipment with (at least) a middle quality needle. There should be a weight/force on the tip set at 2/3rd of the recommended interval. It is recommended to use a needle which has biradial point.
Labels are subject to a visual inspection during the packing (insertion) into inner sleeves.
Some of the automatic players can cause an issue with the automatic start of the Vinyl.
5 Storage, manipulation and transport
Vinyl must be stored in an upright (vertical) position, packed into transport cartons with a maximum of 4 layers. Stacking of cartons in more than 4 layers is only possible in reinforced boxes.
Boxes must be protected against impact and lifting during transport. Stacking with other products is not allowed.
Records are transported in closed vehicles at constant temperatures.
Records must be transported in conditions which will not endanger their quality.
It is the customer’s responsibility to check the goods upon receipt of delivery and to mention any damages (torn or soiled outer boxes or damage to inner or outer sleeves) on the carrier’s delivery note and take photos.
Vinyl records have to be stored in the premises with the maximum relative humidity of 70% and the temperature in the range of 5°C to 32°C, protected from the direct sunlight, radiation and other heat sources.
There are binding conditions in the technical conditions for claims against phonographic records. In the interest of processing claims quickly, the following process should be respected :
Complete details of the claimed title must be provided as well as the claimed defect (specific track(s) and timing(s) must be given for audio related claims) as well as the extent of the claimed defect.
A sample or photography and audio recording of the claimed defect must be provided if claimed amount has to be between 1% to 25% of the overall quantity of the order.
A physical sample of the claimed defect must be provided if claimed amount had to exceed 25%.
In case of disagreement between quality control and client, a third-party professional cutting sound engineer based in Europe could be choose by boths parties to decide.